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Monday 03 September 2007

Does cyclosporine achieve a real advantage for treatment of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children? A long-term efficacy and safety study.

By: Sheashaa H, Mahmoud I, El-Basuony F, El-Husseini A, Hassan N, El-Baz M, Ahmed NS, Sobh M.

Int Urol Nephrol 2007 ;39(3):923-8

BACKGROUND: Cyclosporine (CsA) was found to be efficient in decreasing proteinuria in both steroid-dependent and steroid-resistant nephrotic patients. We aimed to explore the potential long-term benefits and hazards of CsA and their predictors among a large group of nephrotic patients. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis, we included 197 pediatric patients with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) of whom 103 were steroid dependent and 94 steroid resistant. RESULTS: CsA induced complete remission in 132 (67%) and partial response in 13 (6.6%). Cyclosporine was received for a period of 22.16 +/- 12.21 months. Univariate analysis showed that the response to CsA was significantly better in steroid-dependent children, in minimal change disease (MCD), diffuse mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (DMP) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) than in other pathological lesions and in those who had lower quantities of pretreatment proteinuria. Only the prior response to steroids and concomitant use of ketoconazole with CsA were valid predictors for better response to CsA with multivariate analysis. Discontinuation of the drug in 40 patients resulted in relapse in 26 patients while the remaining 14 patients maintained remission. Renal dysfunction developed in 18 patients of whom 12 recovered completely on drug discontinuation. Thirty-seven patients developed hypertension. Multivariate analysis showed that all side-effects were significantly more prevalent in CsA-resistant patients. CONCLUSION: CsA is effective and well tolerated in the long-term treatment of INS in children, however two thirds of cases showed relapse after CsA discontinuation.

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