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Wednesday 01 March 2006

The vitamin D prodrugs 1alpha(OH)D2, 1alpha(OH)D3 and BCI-210 suppress PTH secretion by bovine parathyroid cells.

By: Brown AJ, Ritter CS, Knutson JC, Strugnell SA.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2006 Mar;21(3):644-50

BACKGROUND: Active vitamin D compounds are widely used in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism associated with renal failure. These compounds reduce PTH secretion through vitamin D receptor (VDR)-dependent repression of PTH gene transcription. In previous studies, 1alpha(OH)D3, a vitamin D prodrug, inhibited PTH secretion in cultured bovine parathyroid cells, but it was unclear whether 1alpha(OH)D3 itself or an active metabolite produced this inhibition. METHODS: We determined the effectiveness of the vitamin D prodrugs 1alpha(OH)D3, 1alpha(OH)D2 and 1alpha(OH)-24(R)-methyl-25-ene-D2 (BCI-210) at inhibiting PTH secretion in bovine parathyroid cell cultures, and examined the metabolism of [3H]1alpha(OH)D2 in these cells. RESULTS: All three prodrugs suppressed PTH secretion with approximately 10% of the activity of 1,25(OH)2D3; much higher activity than expected based on the VDR affinities of these prodrugs (0.25% of 1,25(OH)2D3). Parathyroid cells activated [3H]1alpha(OH)D2 to both 1,25(OH)2D2 and 1,24(OH)2D2. 1,24(OH)2D2 was detectable at 4 h, increased to a maximum at 8 h, and then decreased. In contrast, 1,25(OH)2D2 levels increased linearly with time, suggesting the presence of constitutively active vitamin D-25-hydroxylase not previously reported in parathyroid cells. The cytochrome P-450 inhibitor ketoconazole (50 microM) reduced 1alpha(OH)D2 metabolism to below detectable levels, but did not significantly affect suppression of PTH by 1alpha(OH)D2. CONCLUSIONS: The vitamin D prodrugs 1alpha(OH)D3, 1alpha(OH)D2 and BCI-210 suppressed PTH production by cultured parathyroid cells. The ability of 1alpha(OH)D2 to reduce PTH despite inhibition of its metabolism suggests a direct action of this 'prodrug' on the parathyroid gland, but the mechanism underlying this activity is not yet known.

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