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Thursday 01 December 2005

Significant differences in the disposition of cyclic prodrugs of opioid peptides in rats and guinea pigs following IV administration.

By: Liederer BM, Phan KT, Ouyang H, Borchardt RT.

J Pharm Sci 2005 Dec;94(12):2676-87

The stabilities of DADLE ([D-Ala2,D-Leu5]-Enk, H-Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-Phe-D-Leu-OH), the capped derivative Ac-DADLE-NH2, and the oxymethyl-coumarinic acid (OMCA)-based cyclic prodrug of DADLE and [D-Ala2,Leu5]-Enk (H-Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-Phe-Leu-OH) were determined at 37 degrees C in rat and guinea pig liver microsomes in the presence and absence of paraoxon, an esterase B inhibitor, and ketoconazole, a CYP3A4 inhibitor. These studies showed that the order of stability in microsomes was: DADLE >> Ac-DADLE-NH2 > OMCA-DADLE = OMCA-[D-Ala2,Leu5]-Enk. While paraoxon produced no significant effect on the stability of the studied compounds in liver microsomes, ketoconazole inhibited the metabolism, suggesting that the capped peptide and the cyclic prodrugs are substrates for cytochrome P450 enzymes. For pharmacokinetic studies, the cyclic prodrugs of DADLE and [D-Ala2,Leu5]-Enk were administered i.v. to rats and guinea pigs. Various biological fluids and tissue (brain, bile, and blood) were collected and analyzed for the free peptide and the prodrugs by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS-MS). These studies showed that the conversion of the cyclic prodrugs to the respective linear peptides (i.e., DADLE and [D-Ala2,Leu5]-Enk) was rapid in rat and guinea pig. In terms of drug elimination, only trace amounts of OMCA-DADLE and OMCA-[D-Ala2,Leu5]-Enk were recovered in guinea pig bile (3.3% and 0.82%, respectively), while significant amounts were recovered in rat bile (38.1% and 51.7%, respectively). Brain uptake of the cyclic prodrugs in guinea pigs compared to previously determined brain uptake of OMCA-DADLE in rats was also significantly different. For OMCA-DADLE, the brain levels of the cyclic prodrug and DADLE in guinea pigs were approximately 80 and 8.5 times greater, respectively, than the levels observed in rat brain. The brain-to-plasma prodrug concentration ratios in guinea pigs (>or= 0.6) were significantly higher than the ratio observed in rats (0.01). These species differences are most likely due to the different substrate specificities of the efflux transporters that facilitate liver clearance of these prodrugs and limit their permeation into the brain. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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