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Friday 21 September 2007

Ketoconazole-evoked [Ca2+]i rises and non-Ca2+-triggered cell death in rabbit corneal epithelial cells (SIRC).

By: Lin MC, Huang CC, Huang CJ, Cheng HH, Chou CT, Wang JL, Chen IS, Liu SI, Lu YC, Chang HT, Huang JK, Chen JS, Jan CR.

J Recept Signal Transduct Res 2007 ;27(4):295-307

The effect of ketoconazole on cytosolic free Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) and proliferation has not been explored in corneal cells. This study examined whether ketoconazole alters Ca2+ levels and causes cell death in SIRC rabbit corneal epithelial cells. [Ca2+]i and cell viability were measured by using the fluorescent dyes fura-2 and WST-1, respectively. Ketoconazole at concentrations of 5 microM and above increased [Ca2+]i in a concentration-dependent manner. The Ca2+ signal was reduced partly by removing extracellular Ca2+. The ketoconazole-induced Ca2+ influx was insensitive to L-type Ca2+ channel blockers and protein kinase C modulators. In Ca2+-free medium, after pretreatment with 50 microM ketoconazole, thapsigargin-(1 microM)-induced [Ca2+]i rises were abolished; conversely, thapsigargin pretreatment nearly abolished ketoconazole-induced [Ca2+]i rises. Inhibition of phospholipase C with 2 microM U73122 did not change ketoconazole-induced [Ca2+]i rises. At concentrations between 5 and 100 microM, ketoconazole killed cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The cytotoxic effect of 50 microM ketoconazole was not reversed by prechelating cytosolic Ca2+ with BAPTA. In summary, in corneal cells, ketoconazole-induced [Ca2+]i rises by causing Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca2+ influx from unknown pathways. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity induced by ketoconazole was not caused via a preceding [Ca2+]i rise.

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