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Friday 01 December 2000

Effect of ketoconazole on ritonavir and saquinavir concentrations in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid from patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

By: Khaliq Y, Gallicano K, Venance S, Kravcik S, Cameron DW.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000 Dec;68(6):637-46

AIM: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of ketoconazole on ritonavir and saquinavir plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations. METHODS: Twelve patients who were human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive and who were receiving 400 mg of ritonavir and 400 mg of saquinavir twice daily completed a nonfasted, two-period, two-group, longitudinal pharmacokinetic study. Blood samples were collected over the daytime 12-hour dosing interval of the protease inhibitors at baseline (period 1, day 0) and after 10 days of coadministration of 200 mg (n = 6) or 400 mg (n = 6) of ketoconazole once daily (period 2, day 10). One set of paired CSF and blood samples was collected between 4 and 5 hours after the dose on both days. RESULTS: Ketoconazole significantly increased area under the plasma concentration-time curve, plasma concentration at 12 hours after the dose, and half-life of ritonavir by 29% (95% confidence interval (CI), 13%-46%), 62% (95% CI, 37%-92%), and 31% (95% CI, 13%-51%), respectively. Similar increases of 37% (95% CI, 4%-81%), 94% (95% CI, 41%-167%), and 38% (95% CI, 15%-66%), respectively, were observed for these parameters for saquinavir. Ketoconazole significantly elevated ritonavir CSF concentration by 178% (95% CI, 59%-385%), from 2.4 to 6.6 ng/mL, with no change in paired unbound plasma level (26 ng/mL); this led to a commensurate 181% increase (95% CI, 47%-437%) in CSF/plasma unbound ratio. All pharmacokinetic changes were unrelated to ketoconazole dose or plasma exposures. Corresponding changes for saquinavir CSF pharmacokinetics were insignificant (P > .06); saquinavir CSF levels were unmeasurable in 7 patients (<0.2 ng/mL). Conclusions: The disproportionate increase in CSF compared with plasma concentrations of ritonavir is consistent with ketoconazole inhibiting both drug efflux from CSF and systemic clearance.

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