Custom Search


Friday 01 December 2000

Effect of ketoconazole on ritonavir and saquinavir concentrations in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid from patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

By: Khaliq Y, Gallicano K, Venance S, Kravcik S, Cameron DW.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000 Dec;68(6):637-46

AIM: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of ketoconazole on ritonavir and saquinavir plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations. METHODS: Twelve patients who were human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive and who were receiving 400 mg of ritonavir and 400 mg of saquinavir twice daily completed a nonfasted, two-period, two-group, longitudinal pharmacokinetic study. Blood samples were collected over the daytime 12-hour dosing interval of the protease inhibitors at baseline (period 1, day 0) and after 10 days of coadministration of 200 mg (n = 6) or 400 mg (n = 6) of ketoconazole once daily (period 2, day 10). One set of paired CSF and blood samples was collected between 4 and 5 hours after the dose on both days. RESULTS: Ketoconazole significantly increased area under the plasma concentration-time curve, plasma concentration at 12 hours after the dose, and half-life of ritonavir by 29% (95% confidence interval (CI), 13%-46%), 62% (95% CI, 37%-92%), and 31% (95% CI, 13%-51%), respectively. Similar increases of 37% (95% CI, 4%-81%), 94% (95% CI, 41%-167%), and 38% (95% CI, 15%-66%), respectively, were observed for these parameters for saquinavir. Ketoconazole significantly elevated ritonavir CSF concentration by 178% (95% CI, 59%-385%), from 2.4 to 6.6 ng/mL, with no change in paired unbound plasma level (26 ng/mL); this led to a commensurate 181% increase (95% CI, 47%-437%) in CSF/plasma unbound ratio. All pharmacokinetic changes were unrelated to ketoconazole dose or plasma exposures. Corresponding changes for saquinavir CSF pharmacokinetics were insignificant (P > .06); saquinavir CSF levels were unmeasurable in 7 patients (<0.2 ng/mL). Conclusions: The disproportionate increase in CSF compared with plasma concentrations of ritonavir is consistent with ketoconazole inhibiting both drug efflux from CSF and systemic clearance.

Use of this site is subject to the following terms of use