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Sunday 01 January 2006

Bioavailability of two oral formulations of loratadine 20 mg with concomitant ketoconazole: an open-label, randomized, two-period crossover comparison in healthy Mexican adult volunteers.

By: Pineyro-Lopez A, Pineyro-Garza E, Torres-Alanis O, Reyes-Araiza R, Gomez Silva M, Wacksman N, Lujan Rangel R, de Lago A, Trejo D, Gonzalez-de la Parra M, Namur S.

Clin Ther 2006 Jan;28(1):110-5

BACKGROUND: Loratadine is a long-acting antihistamine with selective peripheral histamine H(1)-receptor antagonistic activity and fewer sedative effects compared with conventional antihistamines, and is widely used in Mexico. Although several generic formulations of loratadine are available in Mexico, based on a literature search, information concerning the bioavailability of each formulation in the Mexican population is not available. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the bioavailability and tolerability of 2 oral formulations of loratadine 20 mg (two 10-mg tablets) used in Mexico: Sensibit (test formulation; Laboratorios Liomont S.A. de C.V., Mexico City, Mexico) and Clarityne (reference formulation; Schering-Plough S.A. de C.V., Mexico City, Mexico) in healthy volunteers. METHODS: This open-label, randomized, 2-period crossover study was conducted at Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Eligible subjects were healthy male Mexican volunteers aged > or=18 years. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive a single 20-mg dose (two 10-mg tablets) of the test or reference formulation, followed by a 2-week washout period, followed by the same dose of the alternate formulation. A 400-mg dose of ketoconazole (2 doses in 24 hours) was administered to each subject before the administration of each formulation, and a 200-mg dose of ketoconazole was given together with each formulation (ie, a total of 600 mg of ketoconazole was administered). Doses were administered after a 12-hour overnight fast. For analysis of pharmacokinetic properties, including C(maX), AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-infinity), blood samples were drawn at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 5, 8, 12, 16, and 22 hours after dosing. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the geometric mean ratios of C(maX) and AUC were within the predetermined equivalence range of 80% to 125%. Tolerability was assessed by monitoring vital signs and subject interview regarding the potential presence of adverse events (AEs). RESULTS: Thirty-two subjects were enrolled in the study (mean age, 22 years [range, 18-28 years]; mean weight, 68.9 kg [range, 58-79 kg]; mean height, 170.8 cm [range, 158-183 cm]). Sixteen subjects received the test formulation first. No period or sequence effect was observed. The 90% CIs for the corresponding ratios of CmaX, AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-infinity) were 81.43% to 106.01%, 83.12% to 100.23%, and 84.06% to 101.10% (all, P < 0.05), meeting the predetermined criteria for bioequivalence. Similar results were found for data without a logarithmic transformation. No AEs were reported throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS: In this small study in healthy Mexican volunteers, a single, 20-mg dose of the test formulation of loratadine was found to be bioequivalent to that of the reference formulation based on the rate and extent of absorption when concomitantly administered with ketoconazole. Both formulations were well tolerated.

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