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Saturday 01 June 2002

In vitro characterization of the inhibitory effects of ketoconazole on metabolic activities of cytochrome P-450 in canine hepatic microsomes.

By: Kuroha M, Kuze Y, Shimoda M, Kokue E.

Am J Vet Res 2002 Jun;63(6):900-5

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the inhibitory potency of ketoconazole (KTZ) on the metabolic activities of isozymes of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) in dogs. ANIMALS: 4 healthy 1-year-old male Beagles. PROCEDURE: Hepatic microsomes were harvested from 4 dogs after euthanasia. To investigate the effects of KTZ on CYP metabolic activities, 7-ethoxyresorufin, tolbutamide, bufuralol, and midazolam hydrochloride were used as specific substrates for CYP1A1/2, CYP2C21, CYP2D15, and CYP3A12, respectively. The concentrations of metabolites formed by CYP were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, except for the resorufin concentrations that were measured by a fluorometric method. The reaction velocity-substrate concentration data were analyzed to obtain kinetic variables, including maximum reaction velocity, Michaelis-Menten constant, and inhibitory constant (Ki). RESULTS: KTZ competitively inhibited 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation; it noncompetitively inhibited tolbutamide methylhydroxylation. Bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation was inhibited slightly by KTZ. The mean Ki values of KTZ were 10.6+/-6.0, 170+/-2.5, and 0.180+/-0.131 microM for 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation, tolbutamide methylhydroxylation, and midazolam 4-hydroxylation, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In dogs, KTZ at a therapeutic dose may change the pharmacokinetics of CYP3A12 substrates as a result of inhibition of their biotransformation. Furthermore, no influence of KTZ on the pharmacokinetics of CYP1A1/2, CYP2C21, and CYP2D15 substrates are likely. In clinical practice, adverse drug effects may develop when KTZ is administered concomitantly with a drug that is primarily metabolized by CYP3A12.

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