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Thursday 01 May 2003

Expression of the human CYP3A4 gene in the small intestine of transgenic mice: in vitro metabolism and pharmacokinetics of midazolam.

By: Granvil CP, Yu AM, Elizondo G, Akiyama TE, Cheung C, Feigenbaum L, Krausz KW, Gonzalez FJ.

Drug Metab Dispos 2003 May;31(5):548-58

Human cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is the most abundant hepatic and intestinal phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme, and participates in the oxidative metabolism of approximately 50% of drugs on the market. In the present study, a transgenic-CYP3A4 (Tg-CYP3A4) mouse model that expresses CYP3A4 in the intestine and is phenotypically normal was generated, which was genotyped by both polymerase chain reaction and Southern blotting. Intestinal microsomes prepared from Tg-CYP3A4 mice metabolized midazolam (MDZ) to 1'-hydroxymidazolam about 2 times, and to 4-hydroxymidazolam around 3 times faster than that from wild-type (WT) mice. These increased MDZ hydroxylation activities were completely inhibited by an anti-CYP3A4 monoclonal antibody. The time course of plasma MDZ and its metabolite concentrations was measured after intravenous (0.25 mg/kg) and oral (2.5 mg/kg) administration of MDZ, and pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by fitting to a noncompartmental model. Pretreatment with ketoconazole increased orally dosed MDZ maximum plasma concentration (C(max)), time of the maximum concentration, area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC(0- infinity)), and elimination half-life (t(1/2)) to 3.2-, 1.7-, 7.7-, 2-fold, and decreased MDZ apparent oral clearance about 8-fold in Tg-CYP3A4 mice. The ratios of MDZ C(max), AUC(0- infinity), t(1/2) and bioavailability between Tg-CYP3A4 and WT mice after the oral dose of MDZ were 0.3, 0.6, 0.5, and 0.5, respectively. These results suggest that this Tg-CYP3A4 mouse would be an appropriate in vivo animal model for the evaluation of human intestine CYP3A4 metabolism of drug candidates and potential food-drug and drug-drug interactions in preclinical drug development.

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