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Sunday 01 February 2004

Enantioselectivity of inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) by ketoconazole: Testosterone and methadone as substrates.

By: Dilmaghanian S, Gerber JG, Filler SG, Sanchez A, Gal J.

Chirality 2004 Feb;16(2):79-85

Racemic ketoconazole (KTZ) was the first orally active azole antifungal agent used in clinical practice and has become widely used in the treatment of mucosal fungal infections associated with AIDS immunosuppression and cancer chemotherapy. However, the use of KTZ has been limited because of adverse drug-drug interactions. KTZ blocks ergosterol biosynthesis by inhibiting the fungal cytochrome P450 (CYP51). KTZ is also a potent inhibitor of human cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) enzyme, the major drug-metabolizing CYP isozyme in the human liver. We examined the enantioselective differences of KTZ in the inhibition of human CYP3A4 and in antifungal action. Dextro- and levo-KTZ exhibited modest enantioselective differences with respect to CYP3A4 inhibition of testosterone and methadone metabolism. For both substrates levo-KTZ was approximately a 2-fold more potent inhibitor. We examined the enantioselective differences in the in vitro activity of KTZ against medically relevant species of Candida and Aspergillus, as well as Cryptococcus neoformans. Overall, levo-KTZ was 2-4-fold more active than dextro-KTZ. Therefore, levo-KTZ is a more potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 and has stronger in vitro antifungal activity. Chirality 16:79-85, 2004. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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