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Sunday 01 February 2004

Development of an in vivo preclinical screen model to estimate absorption and first-pass hepatic extraction of xenobiotics. II. Use of ketoconazole to identify P-glycoprotein/CYP3A-limited bioavailability in the monkey.

By: Ward KW, Stelman GJ, Morgan JA, Zeigler KS, Azzarano LM, Kehler JR, McSurdy-Freed JE, Proksch JW, Smith BR.

Drug Metab Dispos 2004 Feb;32(2):172-7

The effect of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and/or CYP3A on the disposition of xenobiotics has been extensively investigated and is often of interest during drug discovery lead optimization. We have previously described a monkey pharmacokinetic screen to rapidly estimate absorption and first-pass extraction. In the present work, this monkey screen has been expanded to include an assessment of Pgp/CYP3A effects on absorption and first-pass extraction, using ketoconazole as a prototypic dual Pgp/CYP3A inhibitor. To generate a ketoconazole dosing regimen, the pharmacokinetics of ketoconazole were first determined in the monkey and were found to be consistent with that previously described in the rat, dog, and human. Dose-ranging experiments demonstrated that a single 10-mg/kg intraduodenal ketoconazole dose would provide an appropriate exposure; this dose was used throughout subsequent interaction experiments. Next, erythromycin and propranolol were explored as positive and negative control substrates for Pgp/CYP3A interactions, respectively. As anticipated, ketoconazole produced no change in the absorption or first-pass extraction of propranolol but resulted in a substantial increase in absorption and decrease in first-pass extraction of erythromycin. Finally, this ketoconazole-based monkey screen was deployed in a drug discovery setting, and examples of such use are presented. These experiments have allowed a more complete characterization of ketoconazole as a prototypic dual Pgp/CYP3A inhibitor and its use as a tool in a preclinical setting and further demonstrate the use of the monkey to investigate the role of Pgp/CYP3A in limiting the oral bioavailability of new drug candidates.

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