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Wednesday 01 September 2004

Effect of cytochrome P450 inhibitors (diethyl dithiocarbamate, ketoconazole and grapefruit juice) on the pharmacokinetics of all-trans-retinoic acid.

By: Saadeddin A, Torres-Molina F, Carcel-Trullols J, Araico A, Peris JE.

Farmaco 2004 Sep;59(9):697-702

Diethyl dithiocarbamate (DEDTC) has been reported to be a more powerful inhibitor of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) in vitro metabolism than the well-established cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibitor ketoconazole (KC). In recent years grapefruit juice (GJ) has been shown to be able to increase the oral bioavailability of several drugs by inhibiting intestinal CYP. This study investigated the in vivo effect of these CYP inhibitors on the pharmacokinetics of ATRA. The latter was administered to rats as a constant-rate intravenous (i.v.) infusion (0.48 mg h(-1) kg(-1)) during 10 h and orally (1.6 mg kg(-1)). DEDTC (320 mg kg(-1) x 2 i.v., 6.4 and 32 mg kg(-1) per os (p.o.)) did not change the ATRA concentration-time profiles, whereas KC (320 and 32 mg kg(-1) p.o.)--with i.v. infused or orally dosed ATRA--increased the mean concentration-time curve value by 160% and 78%, respectively. A high dose of DEDTC (320 mg kg(-1) p.o.) caused a marked decrease in plasma levels of ATRA. GJ (6.4 ml kg(-1) p.o.) did not affect the plasma levels of ATRA. It is concluded that the in vivo effect of CYP inhibitors (DEDTC and KC) on the elimination rate of ATRA is qualitatively different from that expected from in vitro studies.

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