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Thursday 01 July 2004

Resistance reversal action of ketoconazole against mefloquine resistance of Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis.

By: Awasthi A, Dutta GP, Bhakuni V, Tripathi R.

Exp Parasitol 2004 Jul-Aug;107(3-4):115-9

Ketoconazole at 200 mg/kg dose has been found to exert marginal antimalarial action against multidrug resistant (MDR) Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (P. yoelii nigeriensis) in Swiss mice with 25% protection (2/8 mice) while at lower Ketoconazole dose i.e., 75-100 mg/kg, 14.28% mice were protected. Mefloquine (MFQ) (at 8 and 16 mg/kg) exerted suppressive action against MDR P. yoelii nigeriensis resulting in 25 and 14.28% protection of mice respectively. Combined treatment with Ketoconazole and mefloquine resulted in protection of 5/6 mice (83.33%) at MFQ 4 mg/kg + Ketoconazole 100 mg/kg dose, 7/8 (87.5%) mice at MFQ 8 mg/kg + Ketoconazole 20 mg/kg dose and 5/7 (71.42%) mice at MFQ 16 mg/kg + Ketoconazole 25 mg/kg dose and 5/6 (83.33%) mice at MFQ 16 mg/kg + Ketoconazole 100 mg/kg dose. Ketoconazole has been found to enhance the protective effect of mefloquine against MFQ resistant P. yoelii nigeriensis resulting in 66-88% protection of the mice treated with the appropriate combinations. The combination also increased suppression of parasitaemia at different times. The Ketoconazole combination with MFQ significantly increased the mean survival time of the treated mice compared to individual drugs alone. The study shows that Ketoconazole when administered with MFQ exerts bio-enhancing action against mefloquine resistance of MDR P. yoelii nigeriensis.

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