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Tuesday 01 February 2005

In vivo effects of cyclosporin A and ketoconazole on the pharmacokinetics of representative substrates for P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A in rats.

By: Kageyama M, Namiki H, Fukushima H, Ito Y, Shibata N, Takada K.

Biol Pharm Bull 2005 Feb;28(2):316-22

In this study, the in vivo effects of cyclosporin A (CsA) and ketoconazole (KCZ), which are used as inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A, respectively, on the pharmacokinetics of rhodamine 123 (Rho123), nelfinavir (NFV) and erythromycin (EM) were evaluated in rats. The biliary excretion clearance (Clbile) of a known Pgp substrate, Rho123, after intravenous pretreatment with CsA or KCZ (0-20 mg/kg after i.v. administration) showed maximum reduction by 85.6 or 54.1%, respectively, suggesting that the inhibitory potency of KCZ is about half that of Pgp in the liver. Without pretreatment with CsA or KCZ, the clearance ratio of Clbile relative to the total body clearances of Rho123, NFV and EM was 10.5, 0.07 and 31.1%, respectively. After CsA pretreatment, these ratios decreased markedly in a manner dependent on the dose of CsA, while after CZ pretreatment the clearance ratios of NFV and EM increased significantly in a manner dependent on the dose of KCZ. However, in the liver, the contribution of Pgp to the changes in the pharmacokinetic parameters of Rho123, NFV and EM after intravenous administration was much less than that of CYP3A. The portal levels of Rho123 and EM but not NFV after intra-loop administration in the presence of 10 microM CsA in the jejunal loop increased significantly, while in the presence of 25 microM KCZ in the jejunal loop, the portal levels of those substrates showed no notable change as compared to the control levels. In conclusion, KCZ had dual potency to inhibit CYP3A and Pgp, and its inhibitory potency for Pgp was half that of CsA in the rat liver. In addition, metabolism via CYP3A contributed more significantly to the clearance of these substrates that did excretion via Pgp in the liver. In the small intestine, the contribution of Pgp is a more important factor in determining the oral bioavailability of EM than metabolism via CYP enzymes. The elimination of NFV is mainly dependent on liver metabolism via CYP3A, and the Pgp efflux mechanism in the liver and intestine did not contribute as importantly to the oral bioavailability of NFV under in vivo conditions, although NFV has been demonstrated to be a substrate of Pgp under in vitro conditions.

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