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Tuesday 20 November 2007

Pharmacokinetic interaction between ketoconazole and praziquantel in healthy volunteers.

By: Ridtitid W, Ratsamemonthon K, Mahatthanatrakul W, Wongnawa M.

J Clin Pharm Ther 2007 Dec;32(6):585-93

Background: Praziquantel, a broad-spectrum anthelminthic, has been reported to undergo extensive first-pass metabolism by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in vivo. Ketoconazole, a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor, is known to markedly increase plasma concentrations of many co-administered drugs. However, no data are available on the potential pharmacokinetic drug interaction between ketoconazole and praziquantel in humans. Objective: To investigate the potential pharmacokinetic interaction of ketoconazole with praziquantel in healthy adult Thai male volunteers. Methods: In an open-label, randomized two-phase crossover study, separated by a 2-week period, 10 healthy adult Thai male volunteers ingested a single dose of 20 mg/kg praziquantel alone or with co-administration of 400-mg ketoconazole orally daily for 5 days. Venous blood samples were collected at specific times for a 24-h period. Plasma concentrations of praziquantel were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. A non-compartmental model was applied for pharmacokinetic parameter analysis of praziquantel. Results: Concurrent administration of ketoconazole with praziquantel significantly increased the mean area under the curve from time zero to infinity (AUC(0-alpha)) and maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) of praziquantel by 93% (955.94 +/- 307.74 vs. 1843.10 +/- 336.39 ng h/mL; P < 0.01) and 102% (183.38 +/- 43.90 vs. 371.31 +/- 44.63 ng/mL; P < 0.01), respectively, whereas the mean total clearance (Cl/F) of praziquantel was significantly decreased by 58% (2.65 +/- 0.64 vs. 1.11 +/- 0.35 mL/h/kg; P < 0.01). Conclusion: Ketoconazole co-administration alters the pharmacokinetics of praziquantel in humans, possibly through inhibition of CYP3A, particularly CYP3A4, first-pass metabolism of praziquantel. Our data suggest that when praziquantel is co-administered with ketoconazole, the dose of praziquantel could be reduced to half the standard dose of praziquantel to reduce the cost of therapy.

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